2018 Year10 Periodic table

Class notes

where are the following in the periodic table?

Colour these in on your periodic table

• metals - groups 1 to 12
• non metals groups 13 to 18
• metalloids
• inert gases group 18
• transition metals group 3 to 12
• Alkali metals - group 1
• alkali earth metals group 2

Patterns across the periodic tableperiods are rows columns are groups

• the size of the atom gets smaller going left to right across a period
• metals get more reactive going down the group
• non metals get more reactive as you go up the group
• The number at the top of the group can tell you how many electrons in the outer shell
• the Period number the element is in can tell you how many shells the atom has.

• understand the difference between periods and groups
• describe the importance of atomic number in determining the number of electrons

Atomic mass = number of protons  + number of neutrons

Atomic number = number of protons

Cs atomic number of 55 and atomic mass of 133   therefore the number of neutrons = 133-55 = 78

number of protons = number of electrons in an atom with no charge

therefore electrons in Cs = 55

___________________________________________________________

Electron configuration
• determine the electron configuration of atoms on the periodic table using the 2n2 rule and the trend in periods and groups

Electrons are not placed at fixed positions in atoms, but we can predict approximate positions of them. These positions are called energy levels or shells of atoms.

• Lowest energy level is 1 and it is denoted with integer n=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6... or letters starting from K, L, N to Q.  An atom can have maximum 7 energy levels and electrons can change their levels according to their energies.
• Each energy level has different number of electrons. For example, we can find number of electrons in four energy level with following formula; 2n2.

1st energy level has;

2n2=2.12=2 electrons

2nd energy level has;

2n2=2.22=8 electrons

3rd energy level has;

2n2=2.32=18 electrons

• Electrons are located energy levels starting from the first energy levels. If one of the energy level is full, then electrons are placed following energy level

for the first twenty elements - the pattern of maximum number of electrons is 2:8:8:2

_______________________________________________________________________________________

• describe the relationship between valence electrons and element properties
• describe what happens to electrons when excited, and the consequential emission of light.

The valency of an element can be determined (generally) by its group--eg elements in group 1 have a valency of 1 . If they lose an electron they become a positive ion a cation We would write this as a 1 + to the top right of the elements symbol

Eg 2 a metal in group 2 will have a valency of 2 . if they lose 2 electrons they will have a 2+ charge (cation)

Eg a non metal in group 17 will have a valency of 1 they will gain one electron and become a negative ion or anion. We will write it a 1- to the top right of the elements symbol

Some basic properties of metals

1. they are shiny when cut
2. they are good conductors of heat
3. they are good conductors of electricity
4. they can be beaten into a shape - maleable
5. they can be drawn into a wire - ductile
6. they are hard at room temperature - except mercury
7. they have high boiling points and a range of melting points.

Non Metals

They are brittle or gaseous

they can form covalent bonds with each other

they form ionic binds with metals ( eg sodium chloride)

Calculating the number of protons and neutrons and electrons using the atomic number and the atomic mass

1. Atomic number is generally the smallest number - = the number of electrons it also equals the number of protons
2. Mass number is the biggest number - its the combination of the number of protons and the number of neutrons

Eg Mass number of 23 Atomic number 11

this means this atom has 11 protons, 11 electrons

and protons + neutrons = 23

therefore neutrons = 23 -11 = 12 neutrons

Electron Configuration

1. This is the name of the pattern the electrons form as the orbit the nucleus of an atom.
2. The electron shells fill up in order
3. The maximum number of electrons that fit into the first four shell is as follows 2.8.8.18.

Some examples

• Hence we write the electron configuration of sodium as 2.8.1
• And the electron configuration of chlorine as 2.8.7
• and the electron configuration of calcium as 2.8.8.2
• And the electron config of copper as 2.8.15.2
• and for the calcium cation Ca2+ 2.8.8

Flame test Prac

Theory: when a metal is heated electrons are excited and move to a higher energy level. (this means one or two electrons move out to an outer shell). They continue to orbit there until they slow and eventually return to their original energy level (ground state). As they return to their ground state they release energy in the form of coloured light. Every element has its own special colour.

 Name ................Colour ....... safety Strontium Chloride Bright red eye damage in a crystal form Barium CHloride White yellow Toxic if swallowed Copper Chloride Green (some blue) eye damage if crystalline Potassium Chloride Light purple/ peachy pink toxic if swallowed, wash off skin Sodium Chloride Orange eye damage if crystalline Calcium Chloride Blood Orange Toxic Lithium Chloride Dark red harmful if swallowed Strontium nitrate orange/red risk of explosion crystal

Metal Families Prac

How do the metals react?

 Metals .............conducts electricity ......reacts with water ...........reacts with HCl Cu y n yes slow Mg y n yes vigorous Fe y y slow yes slow CuCl2 as a solid - no dissolves dissolves CaCl2 no as asolid dissolves dissolves

Metals vs Compounds

• Pure metals have different properties to metals when they are combined with non metals.
• Pure metals conduct electricity and react with acids to make hydrogen gas.
• Compounds of metals and nonmetals are called salts - they are brittle and do not conduct electricity.

4.3 When atoms meet -- How ionic compounds are made p 177

• An atom has a neutral charge - this means the number of protons = the number of electrons.
• Remember the protons are positive charges inside the nucleus. They can not be taken out of the nucleus.
• The electrons are negative charges and orbit the nucleus. they can be added to or removed.

• anions are the negative charged atoms
• cations are positive charged atoms

To make a cation we remove electrons form the outer shell. This means the atom has more positive protons than negative electrons and hence an overall positive charge. The way we write this - a Ca atom loses 2 electrons therefore it has 2 more protons than electrons at this point in time. the charge atom is called a cation and is written with a 2+ on the top write of the the elements symbol.

Eg Ca ---------> Ca2+ (+ 2 e)

To make an anion we add electrons to the outer shell. This means there are more negative electrons than positive protons and hence a negative charge.

Eg Cl (+ e) ----------> Cl-

Ionic compounds are formed by combining anions and cations.

This is because the negative ion is attracted to the positive ion and make a strong bond between the atoms.

This bond is called an ionic bond. An example of an ionic compound is sodium chloride (salt).

Writing formula for ionic compounds

The main idea

1. only metals join with non metals ( check your periodic table)

2. The number of electrons in the outer shell determines the valency of an atom

(method: valency = the number of electrons in outer shell if there are less than 4 ( if there is less than 4 electrons its a metal)

valency = 8 - the number of electrons in the outer shell for non metals - (if there are more than 4 electrons in the outer shell its a nonmetal

NB This is a generalisation for the first 24 elements and does not work for elements above atomic number 24.

3. because in an ionic bond the metal atom donates electrons to the nonmetal atom charged atoms are created - a charged atom is an ion.

4. if you can't do 2. above - use this table below here, which tells you the valency

writing the formulae

eg. A solution of Lead Nitrate reacts with a solution of Aluminium Chloride. Solution means in water = (aq)

Big numbers are only used in front of the compound

Little numbers are used inside the compound - they may be behind the metal or the nonmetal

NB little numbers tell you how many of that atom of the element are required to make the compound .. eg H2O the 2 is behind the H therefore there are 2 H atoms in the compound water. There is an imaginary 1 behind the O therefore there is only 1 O atom in a molecule of water

Step 1. Determine the symbol and charge of each ion (the numerals in () represent the ion’s charge) but write the cation (+ ions) before the non-metal anion(s) (- ions) except for substances with acetate.

 CATIONS ANIONS 1+ 2+ 3+ 1- 2- 3- Ammonium NH4+ Barium Ba2+ Aluminium Al3+ Bicarbonate HCO3- Carbonate CO32- Nitride N3- Cuprous (I) Cu+ Beryllium Be2+ Chromium Cr3+ Bromide Br- Chromate CrO42- Phosphate PO43- Hydrogen H+ Calcium Ca2+ Ferric (III) Fe3+ Chloride Cl- Dichromate Cr2O72- Phosphide P3- Lithium Li+ Copper (II) Cu2+ Chlorate ClO3- Zincate Zn(OH)42- Potassium K+ Iron (II) Fe2+ Permanganate MnO4- Silicate SiO32- Silver Ag+ Lead (II) Pb2+ Acetate CH3COO- Oxide O2- Sodium Na+ Magnesium Mg2+ Fluoride F- Peroxide O22- Strontium Sr2+ Hydride H- Sulfate SO42- Tin Sn2+ Hydroxide OH- Sulfide S2- Zinc Zn2+ Iodide I- Sulfite SO32- Mercury Hg2+ Nitrate NO3- Thiosulfate S2O32- Nitrite NO2-

Step 2. To write a chemical formula, write ONE of each ion & balance the ion charges so the total is 0 by writing the required coefficient to the bottom right of the ion. For multiples of an atom group, use ( ).

eg. Al3+Cl-, Charge number of Al is a 3 and the charge number of Cl is a 1 so Al1Cl3 but write it as AlCl3

eg. Pb2+NO3- . Charge number on Pb is a 2, and NO3 is only a 1 so Pb1(NO3)2 but write it as Pb(NO3)2.

inline questions and writing for class notes

Chemical Patterns (updated for new text)
Key Concepts
SCIENCE UNDERSTANDING
The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the periodic table.
Elaborations
Recognising that elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar properties
Describing the structure of atoms in terms of electron shells
Explaining how the electronic structure of the atom determines its position in the periodic table and its properties
Investigating the chemical activity of metals
NAME:

Timing 8 lessons
Topic test via assesson.
Science Quest
TEXTBOOK
SCIENCE Quest PRACTICALS / ACTIVITIES SCIENCE Quest
HOMEWORK
OTHER ACTIVITIES/RESOURCES
1
1. Patterns, Order and organisation p 166
2. Elements in the same group have similar properties. P134 to 138 - Properties, metal, non-metals, atomic number and atomic mass (review from yr9)
3. Following a trend: Copy table “Patterns in the periodic table” p140
• Assesson Pretest
• Investigation 4.1 Chem properties of metals and non-metals.
• Investigation 4.2 Comparing the properties of 2 metal families
• Digital documents: (doc 8470) Revising Chemical patterns (Individual Pathways Activity 4.1 Revising chemical patterns)
• Assesson Progress Test
Ques. From textbook – 1 to 5 p 140 or 141
Extension: ( doc 8471) –Investigating chemical patterns
Extension: Interactive: __Time Out: 'Periodic Table'__

[ int-0758 ]
Words to Learn
Periods, groups, atomic number, relative atomic mass, noble gases, non metals, metals, transition metals, lustre, conductor, insulator, ductile, brittle
2 4.2 Small but important p 142
1. Describing the structure of atoms in terms of electron shells
2. Explaining how the electronic structure of the atom determines its position in the periodic table and its properties
3. Use the concept of electron shells to explain observation from flame tests. (not absorption spectrum)
• Assesson Pretest
• Interactive: Shell Shocked (int- 0676)
• Draw the electron shell diagram for 4 different elements
• Investigation 4.3 p 143. Flame Tests
• Text book Ques: p144, q2, 3, 6, 7,
• Assesson Progress Test
Work Sheets -down load from digital resource in text book
4.3 Electron Shells,
4.4 The structure of an atom
Words to Learn
Electron shell, electronic configuration,
3 4.3 When atoms meet p 145
1. How are anions and cations made
2. Ionic compounds are formed by combining anions and cations. Define an ionic bond.
3. Writing ionic formulae
(Do not do covalent bonding)
• Assesson Pretest
• Summarise p145 to 147
• Test book ques p147 q 1 to 5
• Use electron dot diagrams to draw an ionic compound
• Digital Documents Ionic bonding
• Assesson Progress Test
Hmwk p147 q 6 to 8 and q 11
Extension q10 p 147
1. Digital Documents Writing formula for ionic compounds doc-8641.doc

doc-8641.doc
• __Details__
• 673 KB
• Worksheets from text book -
• 4.5 Ionic bonding
• 4.6 Writing formulae for ionic compounds
• Electron Configuration
2. __. try this simulation on balancing equations__This simulation takes a bout 120 seconds to load and you will need to read the instructions to get the best out of this simulation.
Words to Learn
Cation, anion, ionic compound,
4 4.5 Science as a Human Endeavour: How Reactive p150
1. Investigating the chemical activity of metals
2. Describe a replacement reaction
• Assesson Pretest
• Investigation 4.4 p151 Investigating reactivity of metals
• Read p 151 to 152
• Copy Activity Series p 151
• P152 ques 1
• Assesson Progress Test
Ext 3 and 6 – (poster to present results from Investigating reactivity of metals)

ext eLesson Davey and Potassium p151
Words to Learn
Mineral ores, displacement reaction, smelting, alloy, bronze,
Investigation; reportable
Writing an experimental method
Interpreting observations
• Watch a video and record the method, interpret the observations
5 4.6 Finding the right formula p153
1. Valency
2. Ionic formula (leave out covalent bonding and formula- other than water and carbondioxide and the table for common nonmetals and their molecular formulae

Revision and test
• P 153Copy table of common nonmetal molecules and their molecular formulae.
• p 153 Copy valency table
• p 154 Copy common positive ions and common negative ions.
• Follow the stpes for writing ionic formulae
• Questions p 156 Review Revise by doing q 1 to 6

• Assesson Progress Test
• Complete the online test at home.
ext_ p 156 q 7 to 15

Year10 Chemical Pattern