download a copy of the guide sheet outline
Body systems Outline 2011.doc
Movies from

Movie: Heart & Circulatory System
Movie: Digestive System
Movie: Endocrine System
Movie: Immune System
Movie: Muscular System
Movie: Brain & Nervous System
Movie: Lungs & Respiratory System
Movie: Bones & Skeletal System
Movie: Urinary System

Notes from class
Organs in the system
What the system does
Pumps blood around the body. The blood carries food oxygen and waste. It also carries hormones and other chemicals.
Intestines small
Intestines large
Get the nutrients out of food and into the blood
Bronchiole tubes
get oxygen from the air into the blood stream and excrete CO2 and some H2O
Hold up the body and give places for muscles to attach to allow movement.
Receptor or sensory nerves
Effector nerves
Spinal cord
responds to stimuli and keeps us functioning and safe
Excretory/ Urinary
Kidneys bladder
Ureter and urethra
Get rid of the waste products our cells make
Reproductive system
Fallopian tubes
To reproduce

Debate which organ is the most important?

Muscle cells
A group of muscle cells Muscle tissue -
A group of muscle tissues Muscle in the heart or leg etc
Spinal cord

Start questions

Read section on p 168 “Why you need digestion” Make a table to compare Mechanical and chemical digestion

Comparing mechanical and chemical digestion

Mechanical digestion............................

Chemical digestion

Organs include mouth, teeth tongue, uvula, salivary glands
Organs include stomach, liver, gall bladder, intestines
Breaks down into small parts by physically chewing and mashing it into tiny parts that will be mixed into a slosh called a bolus.
Breaks down food into molecules by making chemical reactions take place. Eg uses enzymes to break big molecules into smaller molecules.
This has to happen to get the nutrients across the small intestine into the blood stream.

Hmwk questions chap 6.2 – P 174 questions 1 to 5

Expt 1

How much energy in a twistee?

8H's results Twistee expt 8H.xlsx
8D's resultsTwistee expt 8d.xlsx

Expt 2

Modelling the digestive system

Draw the diagrams of the expt p 176
The dialysis tube kept the bigger starch molecules inside the tube.
We could tell because no starch leaked into the beaker holding the starch filled dialysis tube. If it had it would have turned purple blue colour.

Glucose did leak out of the second dialysis tube. Glucose is a small molecule.
We could tell the glucoses leaked out because we tested the liquid with a glucose test strip.
The test strip changed colour indicating the presence of glucose.

This is like our gut. Small molecules can get across the membrane into the blood while big molecules

Cellular Respiration

This is the burning of glucose inside the cell to release water and carbon dioxide as waste and Energy to be used by the cell.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

Disease research –

Use the section of the text that describes the digestive organs and disease. Choose 2 diseases from different organs and make one mini poster that explains both diseases. In doing so a great poster will have a Title of each disease, picture of the diseased organ for each disease, a list of the symptoms for each disease, possible treatments as a list for each disease.
Revision questions to be done before next lesson p174, ques 8, 9, 11, 13, 14.


Enzymes are chemicals that speed up a reaction. In the body we have many enzymes and they act like a key that unlocks specific food chemicals. Examples of this is amylase – which helps break down long starch molecules into smaller glucose molecules. Or protease that helps breaks down long protein molecules into smaller protein building blocks called amino acids. The advantage of breaking this down is that it is easier for smaller molecules to pass into the blood stream and be carried to the cells that need them.

Essential Food tests

The test for starch is iodine. When iodine is added to a food containing starch we see a _purple, blue, black
The test for glucose is Benedicts solution heated with the test food in solution. If the solution turns _orange it contains glucose
The test for protein is to add NaOH and CuSO4 if protein is present the colour changes to purple___

Class Results
Water solution
Glucose Solution
Starch solution
Gelatine Solution
Oil .............
Starch test
Glucose test
Protein Test
purple, black spots
Oil Test
translucent brown paper

Food Tests

WE are going to use 4 standard food tests to identify the presence of glucose, starch , protein and fats and oils in some common foods. We will use the sheet we completed yesterday to remind us how to do the tests.

The test for fats and oils is to rub the food onto brown paper. If the paper goes translucent then you have detected fats and oils.

name of the food....
fats and oils
boiled egg




Task for next week

Bring in 2 labels off packaged foods. Make sure the labels show the ingredients and their percentage.

Circulatory system task

1. Find an animation of the heart - make sure it shows the movement of blood from the left ventricle to the aorta to the vena cava to the right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the lungs to the pulmonary vein to the left atrium.
2. Which is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated vein.

Dissection of a frog - find the dissection of a frog site - dissection of a frog
Work your way through the dissection of this virtual frog and compare its circulatory system to yours. Answer this question
How many chambers in a frogs heart? how many in yours?
Does the frog have an aorta?
Does the aorta go to the same organs in the frog as it does in you?

Some notes about the Circulatory system

Learn these for your test.
  1. arteries are thick and muscular. they squeeze the blood around the body. Arteries carry oxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary artery)
  2. veins are thinner and have valves to stop the blood running backwards down to your feet. Veins are carrying blood back to the heart so the Oxygen has been used by the cells already. We call this deoxygenated blood.
  3. Capillaries are very thin tubes that interconnect arteries and veins.
  4. Blood carries, oxygen, nutrients, water, waste urea, hormones and chemicals to all the living cells in the body.
  5. Valves in the heart prevent the blood from going the wrong way when the heart beats ( the heart muscle squeezes)
  6. Before tomorrow make sure the questions for this section are complete - go here to correct your answers

Excretory System

The excretory system removes waste that the body makes when it undergoes chemical processes.
2 of these process are
  1. Respiration - (glucose + oxygen -----> carbon dioxide and water) - here the waste products are water and carbon dioxide. The lungs will remove the Carbon dioxide and a small amount of water. Most of the water will be removed by the kidneys.
  2. Break down of protein from dead cells and hormones to form urea. Urea mixed with water is called urine. The kidneys remove the waste urea from the blood and also remove the excess water.

The kidneys form the main part of the urinary system. All the other parts collect, store and deliver the urine to the outside of the body. Urine is passed down the ureter to the bladder where it is stored. When the bladder is 3/4 full you feel the urge to go to the toilet and urine is passed out of the urethra.

Do these questions from the text book p196. q6, 7, 13,

The Skeletal system

The main functions of the skeletal system are
  1. To hold us up and
  2. provide protection to important organs. Ribs protect heart and liver, cranium protects the brain,
  3. provides places for the muscle to attach and hence help us move.
Structure of the bones
Bones are made of calcium phosphate which makes them hard and collagen which makes them a bit flexible. In the middle is bone marrow, which makes red blood cells.


  1. what is cartilage and why is it important? Protects the bones and stops them rubbing together and hence wearing away.
  2. Where are ligaments found and what do they do? Ligaments join bone to bone
  3. where are tendons found and what do they do? Tendons join muscle to bone
  4. Draw and example of each of these joints
    • Hinge eg Jaw
    • ball and socket eg hip
    • pivot eg neck on top of the spine
    • fixed (eg skull)
How do muscles produce movement?
When a muscle contracts it pull on the tendons that attach to bones. The contraction makes the muscle smaller and this pulls the two bones closer. Eg try this with your arm. The muscle on either side of your humerus are called antagonistic muscles. When one muscle contracts the other stretched. (flexors and extensors see p 200)
Complete the questions p 201 and 202


Do the activities in your Homework activity book - p 69 to 72
What should you learn for the test?
1. complete the revision sheet
2. Know the body systems and the parts of each and what the organs do.

  1. Insulin is produced in the

  1. The type of digestion that occurs by the teeth is?

  1. List the parts of the digestive system?

  1. The longest part of the digestive system is the ?

  1. List the blood types
  2. The chambers at the top of the heart are called the
  3. The chambers at the bottom of the heart are called

  1. Which blood vessels carry deoxygenated blood
  2. Which of the following is not a waste product produced by our bodies?
    1. Faeces
    2. Carbon dioxide
    3. Hydrochloric acid
    4. Urine
  3. Before urine is excreted it is stored in the?
  4. Dialysis is the medical term for?
  5. Urine drains out of body through the?
  6. List the functions of the skeletal system?

  1. Your joints have between them to protect your bones.

  1. Your hip is a pivot joint TRUE / FALSE
  2. Your shoulder is a ball and socket joint T /F
  3. Describe the shape of a muscle 'contracts'
  4. A muscle that moves without you thinking about it is called a(n)

  1. Which of the following is a human body system?
    1. Brain
    2. Blood circulation
    3. Stomach
    4. cranial
    5. How much fluid does the digestive system produce each day?
      1. 1L
      2. 2L
      3. 8L
      4. 16L
      5. Peristalsis is:
        1. The chewing of foods in the mouth
        2. The contraction and relaxation of muscles that move food through the alimentary canal
        3. The absorption of broken down food into the bloodstream
        4. The clumping together of faeces in the large intestine
        5. Obesity:
          1. Is an eating disorder in which sufferers unrealistically perceive they need to lose weight.
          2. Involves binge eating followed by purging
          3. Is a condition in which a person is more than 24 percent overweight
          4. Is a town where a large number of OBE recipients reside
          5. When matter is moved more slowly than usual through the digestive system, which of the following is more likely to occur?
            1. Diarrhoea
            2. Heartburn
            3. Constipation
            4. vomiting
            5. You need fibre because:
              1. It contains large amounts of vitamins and minerals
              2. It provides bulk that helps move substances through the digestive system
              3. It is the major source of energy in food
              4. It is used for growth and repair
              5. Pasta, bread and rice are foods that are all rich in :
                1. Carbohydrates
                2. Protein
                3. Fats
                4. Vitamin D
                5. Which food item is high in kilojoules and high in calcium?
                  1. Ice cream
                  2. Can of soft drink
                  3. Hamburger
                  4. Margarine

  1. Blood contains:
    1. Plasma, cells and platelets
    2. Only red blood cells
    3. Either A, B or O cells
    4. Fibrin, pikelets and cells
10.Which of the following is not a type of blood?
  1. A+
  2. AB
  3. O-
  4. OB
11.The human heart:
  1. Is about the size of your head
  2. Pumps about a litre of blood every minute
  3. Is where oxygen is added to the blood
  4. Is really two pumps joined together
  5. When you get a fright, your heart may beat faster. This causes:
    1. Less blood to be pumped every minute, reducing potential blood loss
    2. More blood to be pumped each minute to supply extra energy to muscles and cells
    3. The chest to expand and make you look more impressive to a potential attacker
    4. Your skin to look redder as a warning to others
13.Another name for the knee cap is:
  1. Sternum
  2. Patella
  3. Femur
  4. Cranium

  1. Name 5 types of nutrients, and give an example of a food rich in each one.
  1. What are the two main types of digestion?

  1. In which part of the digestive system:
    1. Do stools form
    2. Is insulin produced_
    3. Do nutrients pass through villi _
    4. Is considerable heat produced
    5. Is saliva produced
    6. Does peristalsis occur _
    7. Would you find hydrochloric acid
    8. Does digestion begin __ 4marks
    9. Could a person with type B+ blood safely: (Please circle Yes / No)
      1. Donate blood to a person with type B- blood: Yes / No
      2. Donate to a person with type O- blood: Yes / No
      3. Receive blood from a donor with type O+ blood: Yes / No 3marks

  1. Which type of blood tubes:
    1. Are one cell thick
    2. Carry blood at low pressure _
    3. Have the thickest outer layer_
  1. What role do the lungs perform in the circulatory system?
  1. What are two waste products produced by cells?
  1. True or False
Pulmonary arteries pump blood to the lungs _
The heart is the size of two fists put together _
The right wall of the heart is bigger than the left _
The skeleton stops your body from collapsing _
Hypertension is known as a heart blockage _
5 marks
  1. Name one disease that could be caused through ones diet.
1 mark
10.Correctly match the following joints with their parts of the body they belong to:

Head/top of spine

Ball and socket
Hip joint

Hinge joint
Elbow joint

Pivot joint
Shoulder joint

Ball and socket joint