Before you start these revision questions you will need to prepare yourself by
Making your Revision outline
How to study Science
1 make a glossary - every topic has a guide sheet - in the guide sheet there is a list of words and terms you should know -
2. Collect your notes - the guide sheet is a course outline that lists the main concepts you should learn and the main activities you should do. You should build your notes from your text and your notebook - but make sure you have information on each of the ideas listed in your guide sheet.
3. Sumarise your notes - a good summary will include diagrams and experiments that summarise the key concepts of each topic
4. convert all this into a concept map - you are aiming to get it down to a half page for each topic. Don't worry if yours is a bit bigger
Before the exam - get friends to test you on the glossary,
try to redraw the diagrams in your summary
complete and test or practice questions
Use Education Perfect to test yourself for each of the topics we have done so far.
Here is an outline of the topics and key words and ideas that will be tested in the semester 2 exam
The Year 10 End of semester 2 exam Topics along with key words
- The topics in the exam are
- Motion ch7
- chemical reactions ch 4 -(not 4.7 or 4.10)
- Evolution ch 2 - 2.1 to 2.4
- Global systems Ch 5
- Thurs 31st CHem and Motion
- Wed 6th - Motion
- THur 7th Global and practice test
- Tues 12th Evol and practice test
- Wed 13th exams start
Chemistry - chemical reactions
The main ideas
Types of reactions
Precipitation Reactions – Develop an understanding of equation writing by completing activities related to precipitation reactions
- Utilise solubility table given on p. 165 to develop students’ understanding of soluble/ insoluble compounds formed and the precipitation reactions related to these precipitates
Chemical Reactions: Reference: Chapter 4.1-4.6, 4.8 of Oxford 10 Science
Identify the reactants and products of a reaction, and their position when writing a chemical reaction equation.
State the law of conservation of mass in regards to reactants and products of chemical equations.
Summarise and describe the evidence that a chemical reaction has taken place.
Write chemical and word equations, stating the reactants and products of these reactions, and states of these substances (aq, l, s, g).
Balance chemical equations to show equal numbers of each type of atom on both sides of the equation.
Distinguish between the different types of chemical reactions: synthesis, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, combustion.
Determine the difference between an acid and a base including key features and properties.
Describe neutralisation reactions between acids and bases.
Identify precipitation reactions and write, balance and assign states to precipitation reactions.
Define the state ‘aqueous’ and determine whether a substance is a solid or aqueous based on the solubility rules.
Describe combustion reactions between hydrocarbons and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy.
Define collision theory and how this relates to the rate of a chemical reaction.
Explain how to increase the rate of a chemical reaction using collision theory (eg description of molecules) for: surface area, concentration, temperature.
Global Systems: Reference: Chapter 5.1-5.6 of Oxford 10 Science
identify the differences between the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.
explain how matter moves through the following cycles with labelled diagrams:
- nitrogen: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, denitrification
- phosphorus: weathering, sedimentation, mineralisation, assimilation, decomposition
- oxygen (links to carbon cycle in 5.4): photolysis, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, decomposition, lithosphere & weathering
- carbon cycle: carbon sinks, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, burning (fossil fuels & fires), decomposition.
explain eutrophication and its impact.
explain the water cycle using the following key terms & labelled diagram: Precipitation, transpiration, condensation, evaporation, surface runoff, ground water, infiltration and perculation.
Distinguish between ‘climate’ and ‘weather’.
Distinguish between the natural greenhouse effect and the enhanced greenhouse effect.
identify supporting evidence of global warming: melting sea ice, melting permafrost, rising sea levels, atmospheric CO2 levels.
describe some of the effects of enhanced greenhouse effect: extreme weather events, health and disease, loss of biodiversity.
Chapters 2.1, 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8
- natural selection, variation, isolation and convergent and divergent evolution, mutation, genes inheritance, species, selection pressures, geographical isolation, continental drift, embryology, comparative anatomy, pentadactyl limb, fossil record, interpreting rock strata and fossil record. Geographical distribution, extinction
- biodiversity as a function of evolution, causes of natural selection
- Relating genetic characteristics to survival and reproductive rates
- Darwin’s theory, Alfred Wallace, ideas that support the theory
- evidence for evolution including - DNA and protein, phylogentic trees, Embryology, vestigial structures, Biogeography, Fossil dating and superposition,
- Different selection pressures - the rise of species, speciation, analogous and homologous structures, Divergent and convergent evolution
Motion– students will be provided with a list of equations to use in this section
Chapters 7.1 to 7.7 inclusive
terms , speed, velocity, average speed, acceleration, deceleration, Distance, displacement, initial velocity, final velocity, Force, (gravity, air resistance, elastic, friction, buoyancy, push, pull, contact forces compared to non contact forces.
graphs (distance / time, velocity/ time) Describing motion given a graph. Plotting graphs. indentifying acceleration, deceleration, distance travelled, constant velocity, stationary objects, discplacement and distance
Weight compared to mass - Weight of an astronaut on different planets compared to the astronauts mass
Newton’s laws of motion (first, second, Third) momentum, airbag, crumple zones, collision, using correct units (eg F in Newtons, Velocity in m/s Acceleration in m/s/s, Energy in joules)
Momentum and conservation of momentum
Convert units eg km/hr to m/s,
Some questions to test your recall on major ideas
Physics revision 2013 sem 2.docx
Physics of motion
- what 2 measurements would you require to determine the speed of an object - wh
- how is velocity different to speed
- how is distance different to displacment
- how do the units of speed (km/hr) indicate how to measure speed?
- when you accelerate what is constantly changing?
- what are the units for acceleration?
- Determine the speed of a ball that covers a distance of 22m in 0.5 seconds.
- List Newtons three laws and any formula that are associated with them.
- A year 8 student described a force as a push or a pull - is this correct? give 4 examples of different types of force.
- How is force different to energy
- In an accident crumple zones increase the time for the car to come to a complete stop. How does this save lives?
- what is deceleration?
- draw a velocity time graph and on the same graph to show acceleration, deceleration and constant veleocity
- Why does an astronaut move backwards if they throw a spanner forward
- find distance if speed =40 m/s and time =4
- find acceleration if initial velocity = 3 m/s final velocity = 10m/s and time =3 s
- find force if mass = 30kg and acceleration = 5 m/s/s
- find average speed in km/hr if a trip of 400km takes 3.5 hours
- Evolution revision questions
- 1. whats the difference between convergent and divergent evolution.
- 2. how does natural selection lead to evolution
- 3. how are the following used as proof of evolution
- what are homologus structures
- what is artificial selection
- what is biogeography
- what was the role of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallis in the development of the theory of evolution
- Give an example of
(i) structural adaptation
(ii) behavioural adaptation
(iii) functional adaptation
50. How have these adaptations helped the organism to survive.
51. What is Darwin’s theory of evolution using the terms ‘natural selection’ and ‘survival of the fittest’.
52. Explain each of the three types of evolution giving an example of each
(i) Divergent evolution
(ii) Convergent evolution
(iii) Parallel evolution
53. Define the following terms
(iv) continental drift
(v) analogous structures
(vi) homologous structures
43. How does a knowledge of DNA and the genetic code support the theory of evolution?
- whats the role of phylogentic trees in evolutionary theory
- How is analysis of proteins used in evolutionary theory
Chemistry of reactions
- assumed knowledge - semester 1 chemistry
- wrtie the general word equation for
- • neutralisation reaction
- • acid + carbonate reaction
- Write the word equation for a combustion reaction where octane is burnt
- write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction
- give example of thermosetting plastic and where and why it is used
- give an example of thermoplastic plastic and where and why it is used in this way
- write a balanced symbol equation for a precipitation reaction between potassium iodide and lead nitrate.
- two clear solutions were added together the products was a milky solution - what tyoe of reaction is this? How do you know this was a chemical reaction? what other observation would lead you to conclude a chemical reaction has occurred
- Use your ion table ( or go here) and write balanced molecuar formulae for
- zinc chloride
- magnesium nitrate
- magnesium carbonate
- What is rust? how does it form
41. Chemistry of reactions
42. assumed knowledge - semester 1 chemistry
43. wrtie the general word equation for
44. • neutralisation reaction
45. • acid + carbonate reaction
46. Write the word equation for a combustion reaction where octane is burnt
47. write a balanced symbol equation for this reaction
48. give example of thermosetting plastic and where and why it is used
49. give an example of thermoplastic plastic and where and why it is used in this way
50. write a balanced symbol equation for a precipitation reaction between potassium iodide and lead nitrate.
51. two clear solutions were added together the products was a milky solution - what tyoe of reaction is this? How do you know this was a chemical reaction? what other obseravtion would lead you to conclude a chemical reaction has occurred
52. Use your ion table ( or go here) and write balanced molecuar formulae for
53. zinc chloride
54. magnesium nitrate
55. magnesium carbonate
56. What is rust? how does it form
21. Physics of motion
22. what 2 measurements would you require to determine the speed of an object - s the distance it travel and the time taken to travel the distance = S = distance/ time
23. how is velocity different to speed --- Answer---
the velocity has direction usually measured in m/s v= displacement / time
24. how is distance different to displacement
the displacement is how far you are from your starting position in a straight line - distance is the overall length you have travelled ( it may be in a circle)
25. how do the units of speed (km/hr) indicate how to measure speed?
the km represents distance / hr represents time
26. when you accelerate what is constantly changing?
the velocity is changing acceleration = (final velocity - initial velocity) / time
27. what are the units for acceleration?
the units are m/s/s
28. Determine the speed of a ball that covers a distance of 22m in 0.5 seconds.
speed = distance /time sub in the values 22/0.5 =44m/s
29. List Newtons three laws and any formula that are associated with them.
1st- a body will stay at rest until a force acts on it ,
2nd F = ma,, A force is created by a mass being accelerated - F =ma and a = v - u / t,,,
3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, - F= ma and momentum = mv
more details go here
30. A year 8 student described a force as a push or a pull - is this correct? give 4 examples of different types of force.
gravity, electrical, resistance, lift,
31. How is force different to energy
Energy is the ability to do work it provides the power for the force to do something = e.g. GPE and gravity
32. In an accident crumple zones increase the time for the car to come to a complete stop. How does this save lives?
- slows you to a stop slower than you would normally come to a stop. Therefore deceleration is slowed and transfer of V >1 to V=0 is slower and time for energy to be changed to sound and heat and not all transferred to the body of the driver
33. what is deceleration?
34. draw a velocity time graph and on the same graph to show acceleration, deceleration and constant velocity
go here to see examples of these types of graphs
35. Why does an astronaut move backwards if they throw a spanner forward -
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction - i.e. the astronaut would move backward in proportion to the force the spanner is thrown and dependent on the mass of the spanner and the astronaut.
37. find distance if speed =40 m/s and time =4
s=d/t 40 = d/t d=160 m
38. find acceleration if initial velocity = 3 m/s final velocity = 10m/s and time =3 s
a = (v - u)/t a = (10-3) / 3 a = 2.33 m/s/s
39. find force if mass = 30kg and acceleration = 5 m/s/s
F = ma F = 30 x 5 F = 150 N
40. find average speed in km/hr if a trip of 400km takes 3.5 hours
av speed = total distance / total time s = 400 / 3.5 s = 114 km/hr
Evolution revision questions
Evolution revision questions
41. whats the difference between convergent and divergent evolution.
Convergent evolution is where 2 species have similar features, traits and characteristics suited to a habitat BUT they had very different ancestral species
Whereas divergent evolution is where 2 species have the same ancestor but have very different features or charaacteristics
42. how does natural selection lead to evolution
Natural selection is where the individuals best suited to the environment survive and can reproduce fertile offspring. Over time evolution has occurred because the traits that have allowed survival are often very different to the features of those ancestoral species
43. how are the following used as proof of evolution
Homologous – see convergent evolution
Artifical selection – natural selection – evolutionary processes work with the aid of humans selecting the trait to survive
Biogeography – spread of species
Darwin and Wallace – natural selection
what was the role of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace in the development of the theory of evolution
45. Give an example of
(i) structural adaptation --- physical structures eg bones, teeth, fins, feathers that help the species survive
(ii) behavioural adaptation --v--- a behaviour that assist survival – eg being nocturnal to avoid predators or environmental conditons (too hot)
(iii) functional adaptation --- Physiological functionaing like effective kidneys to survive in deserts
46. How have these adaptations helped the organism to survive.
47. What is Darwin’s theory of evolution using the terms ‘natural selection’ and ‘survival of the fittest’.
--- Answer---See the answer to question 42
48. Explain each of the three types of evolution giving an example of each
--- Answer--- see answers to ques 41
(i) Divergent evolution --- pig and horse, whale and wolf
(ii) Convergent evolution – deer and kanagaroo
49. Define the following terms
(i) aquatic - ---living in the water
(ii) terrestrial --- living on the land
(iii) embryo --- developing baby before it has baby features
(iv) continental drift --- movement of the continental plates over time
(v) analogous structures ---see above
(vi) homologous structures ---see above
50. How does a knowledge of DNA and the genetic code support the theory of evolution? – allows scientists to ---identify the similar genetic code and pattern of proteins. Those that are closely related have an almost identical pattern if genes and proteins
More Physics revision
The following formulae are provided in the exam:
||F = ma
|W = Fd
||GPE = mgh
||g = 9.8 m/s2
- What does each of the symbols represent:
- You ride your bike to school at an average speed of 20kph. It take you 6 minutes to get to school.
- How far do you live from school?
- What formula did you use?
- The next morning you ride to your friend’s place, it takes you 10 minutes at 20 kph, then you both ride to school at 15 kph. What is the total distance you travelled?
- Write in words the meaning of
- What are Newton’s three laws
- As a car approaches a red traffic light, it slows down to 20kph. The light turns green and the driver puts her foot on the accelerator to reach 50 kph in 5 seconds.
- What is the acceleration of the car?
- What formula did you use?
- What is the opposing force to the thrust of the motor in causing acceleration?
- What is inertia?
- Mrs Egan’s daughter is rushing to the hospital to have her baby. The hospital is 5k from her house and Glenn travels at an average speed of 50kph.
- How long will it take them to get to the hospital?
- What formula did you use?
- Draw the car and draw and name each of the forces acting on it
- Draw the Life Cycle of a Star, naming each stage
Work and energy, energy, Potenetial energy (PE = mgh) work, KE, Elastic potential energy,
The law of conservation of energy, its applications, Energy efficiency
Thermodynamic systems- , an experiment that shows this law, How insulation works and the law of thermal equilibrium
Comparison of heat transfer - conduction vs convection. the role of KE and particles in each. The role of convection currents. Compare transfer of heat in different states - eg solid, liquid, gas.
law of thermodynamics - identify the constituents of the total energy in a system. Internal energy, Heat engines, First law of thermodynamics- INternal energy increases when heat is added and decreases when work is done. Second law of thermodynamics - Everytime Energy is transformed , thermal energy is generated and is transferred to its surroundings. The concept of entropy
the 2 laws of thermodynamics are different
- convection and conduction are different
- KE can explain the transfer of thermal Energy in a
- What is thermal equilibrium
- Calculate the KE of a moving object with mass 15kg and a velocity of 20m/s
- calculate the GPE of a rock 15 kg on top of a cliff 200m high
- Constellations, galaxies, nebulae, parallax
- Nuclear fusion, corona, sunspots, aurora borealis, aurora australis, ionosphere
- Protostar, magnitude ,apparent magnitude, absolute magnitude, main sequence, red giant, pulsating star, planetary nebula, white dwarf, supergiants, supernova, neutron star, black hole.
- Doppler effect, frequency, spectrum, wavelength, red shift, blue shift,
- Cosmology, big bang theory, absolute zero,
- Chapters 6.1 up to and including 6.5
- What is the big bang
- how old is the universe?
- how old is earth?
- how old is the sun?
- These form part of the life cycle of a star - what are the features of
- red dwarf
- black hole
- red giant
- Where would you look in the night sky to see another galaxy?
- the constellation orion
- whats the difference between a galaxy and constellation and a gas giant
- what is space made of
- what elements form the reactants of the star's source of energy
- what elements form the products of a stars source of energy
- write the word equation for a star's reaction that makes light and heat (that is its source of energy)
- Alpha centauri is our closest star apart from the sun. it is 2.5 light years from us. What does this mean? how far in kilometres is this?
- How do astronomers use the doppler effect?
- how is parralax error used to measure distances to stars
- 2. What is the big bang -
a theory for how the universe was created
3. how old is the universe? -
13.8 billion years
4. how old is earth?
5. how old is the sun?
6. These form part of the life cycle of a star - what are the features of
7. supernova, -
8. red dwarf
9. black hole
10. red giant
11. Where would you look in the night sky to see another galaxy?
12. the constellation orion
13. whats the difference between a galaxy and constellation and a gas giant
14. what is space made of
15. what elements form the reactants of the star's source of energy
16. what elements form the products of a stars source of energy
17. write the word equation for a star's reaction that makes light and heat (that is its source of energy)
18. Alpha centauri is our closest star apart from the sun. it is 2.5 light years from us. What does this mean? how far in kilometres is this?
19. How do astronomers use the doppler effect?
20. how is parralax error used to measure distances to stars