Year 8 Cells

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Class notes

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Headstart Year 8 Cells updated 14th November 2015

Key Concepts
  1. 1. Cell size & meet the Microscope
  2. 2. Examination of cells – multicellular & unicellular
  3. 3. Distinguishing between plant & animal cells
  4. 4. Identifying cell structures & understanding the functions
Science Quest
1 3.1 A whole new world p 60-62
Discovery of cells
Video575.2 LIT Little Cell Big Picture
Or Introducing Cells V574 INT
Or The Magic of Cells V574.57 MAG
Web activity – parts of the microscope

Interactivities-Microscope Parts (int-0205)

Cells rap
Cells Booklet page 1 & 2

Download this from edmodo - ask your teacher for your class code.
Words to Learn
Microscope, magnification, electron microscope, light microscope, nm, mm
2 3.2 Focusing on a small world p 63 – 67
Types of microscopes
Microscope components Magnification
Investigation 3.1 p 66 Getting into focus
Investigation Hay infusion Booklet page 6
Cells Booklet page 2 – 6 Words to Learn
Monocular, binocular, stereo, microbiologist, parts of the microscope
3 3.3 Form & Function: Cell make-up p 68-71
Size of cells, Cell types, Cell components
Five Kingdoms
Textbook Questions: p 71 1-5,7,8,9,12 Make a cell model
Booklet page 7
Words to LearnUnicellular, multicellular, nanotechnology, eukaryote, prokaryote, cell membrane, cytosol, ribosome, cytoplasm, organelles, metabolism, binary fission, mitochondria, chloroplast, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, nucleus, vacuole
4 3.4 Zooming in on Life p 72 – 74
Sketching cells, Preparing Slides
Wet mounts, Staining specimens
Investigation 3.2 p 73 All in one cell
Investigation 3.4 p 74 Pond water
Investigation 3.5 p74 Peel, squash & stain
Textbook Ques: p 74 1,2
Worksheet 3.3 p74
Booklet page 8 - 9
Words to Learn
Specimen, coverslip, staining
5 3.5 Focus on animal cells p 75 -77
Similarities and differences in animal cells
Textbook Ques: p 77 1-4,5ace,6 Interactivities-Cell Jobs
Words to Learn
Cilia, flagellum
6 3.6 Animal cells – made to order p 78 -83
Stem cells
Textbook Ques: p 83 1-12

Cell rap
Words to Learn
Organelles, tissues, organs, systems
Stem cells
7 3.7 Focus on plant cells p 84 – 85
Differences in plant cells
Investigation 3.7 p85 Plant cells in view
Textbook Ques: p 85 1-4,5ac,6
Worksheet 3.4 p85 Words to Learn
Xylem, Phloem, Guard &Epidermal cells
8 3.8 Plant Cells – holding, carrying & guarding p 86 – 91
Transport systems in plants
Investigation 3.9 p89 Observing leaf cells
Textbook Ques: p 91 1-10
Worksheet 3.5 p91
Worksheet 3.6 p91
Words to Learn
Translocation, Stomata, Transpiration
Vascular bundles
9 3.9 Cell Division
Reproduction of cells/mitosis
Investigation 3.13 p94 Where are those germs?
Textbook Ques: p 95 1,3,4,6-11
Words to Learn
Chromosomes, Mitosis, Clones
eLesson p108- A Cure (eles-0070)
10 Review and Test Study Checklist P108
eBook Individual Pathways p108
-Activity 3.1 (doc-6048) -Activity 3.2 (doc-6049)
Looking Back p109-110


Class notes

Complete the eLesson on whats inside a cell got to the JacPlus site or use the direct link in the course guide above.
Hand in the completed worksheet


Measurements of small objects.

Long distance are measured in kilometres (km) or metres (m). Smaller distances or lengths are measured in centimetres (cm 1/100 metres) or millimetres (mm 1/ 1000 metres). When measuring cells we use micrometres (um 1/1000000 metres) or nanometres. (nm 1 / 1000000000 metres). This means there are one thousand micrometres in a millimetre and one million nanometres in a millimetre.

Measuring the Field of View of our microscopes


On Low Power

The magnification was Ocular X Lens = 10 X 4 = 40X

The distance across the field of view in mm was 5mm

On Medium Power

The magnification was Ocular X Lens = 10 X 10 = 100X

The distance across the field of view in mm was 1.5 mm

On High Power

The magnification was Ocular X Lens = 10 X 40 = 400X

The distance across the field of view in mm was 0.25 mm

Measuring the size of a red blood cell

Focus the blood cell on medium power. Count the number of cells that fits across the Field of View.
Divide the size of the medium power field of view by the number of cells.

I found that about 200 cells fitted across the medium power field of view.
Therefore the size of one cell is 1.5/200 = 0.00075 mm

Onion cell slides

Do ques 1 to 5 p 141
HMWK activity 5.1 and 5.1

Transport in Cells
Water and nutrients are transported from the roots or leaves by specialised cells called xylem (water transport) and Phloem ( sugar and nutrient transport).
Once the water arrives at the cell the water diffuses into the cell along with the nutrients. Waste products diffuse out.

In plants there are different types of cells we say they are specialised. These cells perform a special function.
  1. In the leaf palisade cells contain many chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis.
  2. Another cell type is the guard cells. Their job is to let gas out and in to the leaf while preventing too much water loss due to transpiration.
Copy Fig 5.2.5, 5.2.6. 5.2.11 p 138

Celery Demonstration
The celery was cut longitudinally and one side placed into red dye the other side into blue dye.

We observed blue patches on the leaves of the celery the was in the blue dye and red on the other side.

This shows the water is travelling up special cells – xylem cells.
We also saw distinct blue patches in the transverse section of the stem.

7,10,11,13,15,17, 19, p 141


Animal Cells

The structure of an animal cell is different to that of a plant cell.
Animal cells do not have: This means that animal cells can have a wide range of shapes and sizes.
Some examples include : blood cells, muscle cells, bone cells, nerve cells, oesophagus cells.

Use the microscope to examine and then draw cells found in 3 different parts of our digestive system. Diagrams need to be labelled, in pencil, 10 lines big and have the cell sizes calculated.

Use your text book and online resources to find out
  1. how viruses reproduce - a good answer will have an animation and you will be able to use the terms chromosomes and DNA, where on or in the host cell they reproduce, how do we use them?
  2. how bacteria reproduce - a good answer will have an animation and you will be able to use the terms chromosomes and DNA, binary fission, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction. Where on or in the host cell they reproduce, how do we use them?
  3. You will be teaching the rest of the class about what you have learnt. You will need to consider